Ayahuasca Shamanism Plants

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Ayahuasca Shamanism Plants

Ayahuasca shamanism plants– This is a basic learner’s manual for a few plants associated with Ayahuasca shamanism. The jungle is a ‘college of life’ in which the shaman sets his mind upon. Learning of the therapeutic and otherworldly characteristics of each plant is a piece of the way of Vegetalismo.


Banisteriopsis caapi -Ayahuasca, Oni, Yage

ayahuasca banisteriopsis caapi- ayahuasca shamanism plants

-ayahuasca shamanism plants

Indigenous names – yag huasca, rambi, shuri, ayahuasca, nishi oni, npe, xono, datm, kamarampi, Pind, natema, iona, mii, nixi, pae, ka-hee, mi-hello there, kuma-basere, and so on

Scientific categorization Malpighiaceae (liana family)

The Banisteriopsis vine is a Malpighiaceous jungle liana found all through Amazonian Per, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, western Brazil, and in segments of the Ro Orinoco. It is utilized over the Amazon for the treatment of infection and to access to the visionary or legendary world that gives disclosure, recuperation, and ontological security (Dobkin De rios 1972, Andritsky 1984). Banisteriopsis caapi constitutes the regular base element of Ayahuasca, where it is “brewed” with different plants, for example, Psychotria viridis (chacruna) or Diplopterys cabrerana (chagropanga, chaliponga, oco-yage). Banisteriopsis caapi contains beta-carbolines that show calming, trancelike, entheogenic, stimulant and monoamine oxidase repressing action (McKenna DJ, Callaway JC, Grob CS 1996). Moreover, the tea constitutes an intricate and differing indigenous pharmacopia, with numerous different plants included with particular restorative or otherworldly achievements. These incorporate Brugmansia suaveolens (Toe), Brunfelsia grandiflora (Chiric sanango), Tynnanthus panurensis (Clavohuasca), Cyperus (Piripiri), Petivaria alliacea (Mucura, Anamu), and Mansoa hymenaeamanilkara (ajos sacha) among numerous others.

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the Ayahuasca vine –

– ayahuasca shamanism plants

ayahuasca vine in the wild- ayahuasca shamanism plants

The utilization of Ayahuasca may well be primordial, its origin reaching out back to the ancient native occupants of the locale (Schultes and Hofman 1992). The most seasoned known artifact thought to identify with the use of ayahuasca is a formal container, cut out of stone, with engraved ornamentation, which was found in the Pastaza culture of the Ecuadorean Amazon from 500 B.C. to 50 A.D (Naranjo, 1979, 1986). The designing of customary materials, ceramics and body craft of different tribes can likewise be somewhat ascribed to the visionary frame constants of shamanic observations. The wealth of myths portraying the beginning of Ayahuasca as profoundly entwined cosmologically with the making of the universe, earth, and tribal individuals, which suggests a long history of human utilization. ” different indigenous gatherings all trust that the visionary vine is a vehicle which makes the primordial available to humankind.” (Luna, 2000). Ayahuasca is the most venerated and regarded sacrosanct pharmaceutical of the New World.- ayahuasca shamanism plants

Psychotria Viridis – Chacruna

– ayahuasca shamanism plants

psychotria viridis ayahuasca yage- ayahuasca shamanism plants

Indigenous names – Chacruna, Amirucapanga, Kawa-kui, Rami-Appani

Scientific categorization -Rubiaceae (espresso family)

Remarks The foliage of Psychotria viridis is a guideline admixture of Ayahuasca mixtures utilized all through Amazonian Peru, Ecuador and Brazil, arranged with Banisteriopsis caapi to make the stately mending pharmaceutical Ayahuasca.

In Columbia, the plant Diplopterys cabrerana is frequently utilized. The blend of Yage vine with Chacruna is here and there known as ‘The Marriage’ of “energy” (caapi) and “light” (viridis), with Chacruna considered ladylike in connection to the Grandfather Yage. The shamanic “mareacin” occasioned by ‘The Marriage’ is utilized with the end goal of shamanic recuperating, vision, and individual and aggregate combination.- ayahuasca shamanism plants

cyperus piripiri ayahuasca shamanism plantsCyperus Piripiri

-ayahuasca shamanism plants

Indigenous names Piripiri, Ibenkiki.

Scientific classification Family Cyperaceae (Sedge family)

Remarks People all through the Amazon develop various assortments of sedges for an extensive variety of employments. The Machiguenga and Shuar utilize sedge rhizomes and knob highest points of Cyperus to treat cerebral pains, fevers, issues, dysentry, wounds, labor, and to enhance weaving and chasing abilities.

Cyperus species are inherently plagued with Balansia cyperi Edg. (Clavicipitaceae), a growths appeared to create “a few unidentified ergot alkaloids” (Plowman et al., 1990). Among these alkaloids, some of which are harmful, there are a few, similar to ergonovine and ergine, known to have psychoactive properties (Bigwood et al., 1979).

In the Amazon bowl, the Sharanahua Indians add powdered rhizomes of Cyperus to Ayahuasca mixtures (Schultes and Raffauf 1990). This might be Cyperus prolixus (Mckenna et al. 1986). Cyperus are likewise answered to be smoked in shamanistic practices (Plowman et al., 1990, Schultes and Raffuf 1990), and are additionally allegedly utilized as a part of eyedrops by Shipibo-Conibo ladies in association with the conventional Quiquin recuperating outlines and materials.- ayahuasca shamanism plants

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Nicotiana tabacum Mapacho

– ayahuasca shamanism plants

nicotiana tabacum - shaman plant medicine- ayahuasca shamanism plants

Indigenous names Mapacho, Lukux-ri (Yukuna); ye’- mama (Tariana); a’- li (Bare); e’- li (Baniwa); mu-lu’, pagri-mul (Desano); kherm’- ba (Kofn); d-oo-w (Witoto)

Scientific categorization Solanaceae, Nightshade Family, Potato Family

Remarks Nicotiana are local in North and South America, particularly in the Andes (45 species) and in Polynesia and Australia (21 species). Tobacco is a standout amongst the most imperative plants in the lives of all tribes of the northwest Amazon (Wilbert, 1987). Related with virtue, fruitfulness and fertility, it assumes a noteworthy part in remedial customs and vital tribal functions. Recreational utilize is phenomenal.

Tobacco is utilized in the medicinal practices of numerous tribes. The Tukanoan people groups of the Vaups frequently rub a decoction of the leaves energetically finished sprains and wounds. Among the Witotos and Boras, new leaves are pulverized and poulticed over bubbles and tainted injuries. The Jivaros of Ecuador take tobacco squeeze remedially for indisposition, chills and snake chomps, and furthermore amid war arrangements, triumph feasts and shamanic custom.

Nicotiana is utilized over the Amazon “as a change specialist next to each other with Anadenanthera, Banisteriopsis, Trichocerus pachanoi and Virola in the panther complex and lycanthropy by and large” (Wilbert 1987). The ayahuasqueros of Per blend tobacco juice with Ayahuasca, pounding the leaves and softening them with salivation, leaving the juice overnight in a gap cut into the storage compartment of the lupuna tree (Trichilia tocachcana), the sap of which dribbles into the tobacco juice. Among the western Tukanos of Colombia and Brazil, curanderos give their understudies tobacco juice to cause cleansing and shamanic venturing. Among the Quichua of Eudador, the trying shaman must student with tobacco juice amid their preparation.

A standout amongst the most across the board added substances to Ayahuasca, the Shuar, Shipibo and Piro, Machigenga, Cocama, Barasana, Aguaruna and Campa vegetalista’s guzzle tobacco juice (of n.tabacum and n.rustica) or lick “ambil” (a consumable tobacco arrangement) with Banisteriopsis Caapi (Wilbert 1997). Tobacco is additionally smoked in the functions and healing ceremonies of specific tribes, for example, the Lamista, Shipibo, and mestizo curanderos, who blow smoke over the Ayahuasca mix and over the patients, joined with fitting icaros.

This tobacco is for all intents and purposes unrecognizable from business tobacco. It is without compound treatment and added substances, and has a scent that the Spirit of Ayahuasca is said to like (Luna and Amaringo 1991). Tobacco is key to the world-perspective of the American shaman (Wilbert 1991).

shaman plant - brugmansia suaveolens- ayahuasca shamanism plantsBrugmansia suaveolens To

– ayahuasca shamanism plants

Indigenous names To; Floripondio; Maricahua; Campana; Borachero; Toa; Maikoa (Jivaro); Chuchupanda (Amahuaca); Aiipa (Amarakaeri); Haiiapa (Huachipaeri); Saaro (Machiquenga); Gayapa y Kanachijero (Piro-Yine); Kanachiari (Shipibo-Conibo), Angels Tears, Angels Trumpet.

Scientific classification Solanaceae (Nightshade)

The family Solanaceae are the most across the board and broadly utilized class of vision actuating plants (Ott 1996). Frequently called the ‘tree Daturas’, Brugmansia are currently perceived by botanists as meriting a particular ordered status inside the family Solanaceae. All types of the class are local just to South America. Brugmansia suaveolens, a 10 foot tall blossoming shrub, develops in the tropical marshes of the Amazon where it is utilized as a shamanic inebriant and as an Ayahuasca admixture (Schultes and Raffauf 1992). The shamanic utilization of Brugmansia is packed for the most part in the west: along the Andean and Pacific edge of the landmass from Colombia down to southern Peru and the center of Chile. The plants are broadly exchanged for both their psychoactive properties and elaborate esteem. The Kamsa and Ingano individuals of the Sibundoy Valley in the Columbian Andes disperse various species all through the Amazon.

Brugmansia is additionally now and again utilized as a part of conjunction with tobacco. The present-day Tzeltal Indians of Mexico smoke the dried leaves of B. suaveolens with Nicotiana rustica keeping in mind the end goal to get dreams that show the reason for different infections. The Jivaros utilize Brugmansia in start customs to speak with the progenitor spirits. The Jivaro Indians of eastern Ecuador and Peru utilized types of Brugmansia in a decoction which was taken as a bowel purge by their warriors ‘to pick up control and prognosticate the future’ (De Smet 1983). A Jivaro kid as youthful as six may take Brugmansia or Ayahuasca under the supervision of his dad keeping in mind the end goal to make an ‘outer soul’, a ‘psychic “organ” equipped for speaking with the progenitors through visionary encounters (Rudgley 2000).

The brugmansia class is ordinarily rich in anticholinergenic alkaloids, hyoscyamine, atropine, and scopolamine. Substances which piece cholinergic transmission meddle with the operation of the parasympathetic sensory system, and may bring about poisonous quality or passing as a result of activity on essential life-bolster capacities (Winkelman 1999). Since tropane alkaloids are to a great degree lethal in little sums, curanderos utilize to circumspectly, a neighborhood source has composed that exclusive 1 leaf is utilized as a part of an Ayahuasca tea to be devoured by 5-10 individuals. The utilization of Brugmansia for enchanted reasons for existing is the region of able ace curanderos as it were.

ayahuasca-yage-iowaska shaman hallucinogenic psychedelic tea

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Brunfelsia grandiflora Manac, Chiric sanango

– ayahuasca shamanism plants

ayahuasca brunifelsia shaman plant medicine

Indigenous names Manac, Manacn, Chiriguayuasa, Chiric sanango, Chuchuwasha, Manaka, Vegetable Mercury, Manag Caa, Gamb, Jeratacaca

Scientific classification Family Solanaceae

Remarks Manac is a medium examined shrubby tree developing to 8 meters in stature and is indigenous to the Amazon Rainforest. It can be found in the Amazon areas of Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Columbia and Venezuela. Manac has a long history of indigenous use in the Rainforest as both a restorative plant and a supernatural plant. It’s regular name Manac, originates from the Tupi Indians in Brazil, who named it after the most excellent young lady in the tribe, Manacn, in light of its wonderful blossoms.

The dynamic constituents of Manac incorporate the alkaloids Manaceine and Manacine, scopoletin and Aesculetin. Manaceine and Manacine are believed to be in charge of empowering the lymphatic framework while Aesculetin has exhibited pain relieving and calming exercises. Scopoletin is an outstanding phytochemical which has exhibited pain relieving, antiasthmatic, mitigating, clean, antitumor, CNS-stimulant, malignancy preventive, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, myorelaxant, spasmolytic and uterosedative movement.

It is utilized inside otherworldly and restorative settings by numerous tribal people groups including the Kofan, Siona, Ingano, Runa and Shuar, who are known to include the bark, leaves or roots to Ayahuasca (Kohn 1992; Plowman 1977; Schultes and Raffauff 1990). It is likewise utilized alone as an entheogen by the Kofan and Siona-Secoya people groups. Shamans consider B. grandiflora an otherworldly guide (Plowman 1977).

A source has composed that 2-3g for every individual is utilized as a part of local settings for incitement of the lymphatic framework and as an ayahuasca admixture. This herb can be unsafe in exorbitant measurements.

shaman plant medicine - Tynnanthus panurensis ? Clavohuasca- ayahuasca shamanism plantsTynnanthus panurensis Clavohuasca

– ayahuasca shamanism plants

tynnanthus panurensis

Indigenous names Manac, Manacn, Chiriguayuasa, Chiric sanango, Chuchuwasha, Manaka, Vegetable Mercury, Manag Caa, Gamb, Jeratacaca

Scientific categorization Family Bignoniaceae

Remarks “Our sources trust that the spirits of these admixtures introduce themselves either amid the mental trips evoked by the refreshment or in the fantasies following the inebriation, and that they unveil to the start their pharmacological properties. Our sources likewise perceive the synergistic impact that occasionally happens when a few plants are taken together. This idea depends on the possibility that these plants “know each other” or “go well together,” while different plants “don’t care for each other.” (D McKenna 1995)

Tynnanthus panurensis, Clavohuasca (‘clavo’ = “clove” , “huasca” = ‘vine’) is an expansive woody vine that grows up to 80 meters long which is indigenous to the Amazon rainforest and different parts of tropical South America. The vine bark has a stong particular clove-like fragrance, procuring it regular name, Clove Vine. The vine cross-area has a particular maltese cross corazon.

Other than the rubiaceous admixtures, for example, Psychotria Viridis quite often incorporated into Ayahuasca, a large group of admixtures are utilized relying upon the otherworldly, custom, or therapeutic purposes for which the elixir is being made and expended (Schultes 1957; Pinkley 1969; Rivier and Lindgren 1972; Luna 1984; McKenna et al.1984). Clavohuasca is one such Ayahuasca admixture (Burman, Luna 1984),

Clavohuasca is customarily arranged by macerating the vine bark and wood in liquor or most usually, the neighborhood sugar stick rum called aguardiente. In Brazilian natural solution, the plant is called Cip Cravo and it is viewed as a fantastic solution for dyspepsia, troublesome absorption, and intestinal gas (prepared as a water decoction) and a love potion (macerated in liquor into a tincture). Indian tribes in the Amazon in both Peru (Shipibo-Conibo) and Brazil (Kayapo, and Assurini) very view Clavohuasca as a compelling love potion for the two men and ladies.

There is no distributed clinical investigations up ’til now on Clavohuasca. Preparatory phytochemical investigation by Brazilian researchers have found an alkaloid they named “tinantina” and additionally tannic acids, eugenol and other basic oils.

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Anadenanthera colubrina Vilca

-ayahuasca shamanism plants

Tynnanthus panurensis ? Clavohuasca shaman plant medicine ayahuasca

Indigenous names Vilca, Cebil (Argentina), Huilca, Angico preto (Brazil), Curupay-at (Paraguay).

Anadenanthera colubrina

Scientific categorization Family Leguminosae

Remarks Anandenanthera colubrina is mimosa-like tree that happens around N. Chile in the Andes, where Argentina and Bolivia meet. It can develop to 80 foot high and have a trunk distance across of up to 2-3 foot. The seeds of A.colubrina has been utilized by means of snuff, bowel purge and smoked preperations for therapeutic and shamanistic purposes for ~4000 years by the Inca and different societies of Argentina and Southern Peru, as confirm by the nearness of cebil seeds in preceramic levels (2130 B.C.) at Incacueva, a site in the northwest of Humahuaca in the Puna fringe of the Province of Jujuy, Argentina (M. L. Pochettino, A. R. Cortella, M. Ruiz. 1999).

The seeds of A. colubrina are as yet used to cure the debilitated, advantage and ensure the group, and for cryptic or divinatory purposes (Logan 2001), by the Mataco Indians of the Rio Bermejo and Rio Pilcomayo zone of Argentina (Repke 1992; Torres 1992) where it is known as huilca or vilca and cbil (Altschul 1967).

As far as it’s use close by Ayahuasca, it has been accounted for that “Tiwanakuans, similar to the Guahibo today, consolidated sniffing Anadenanthera with biting the ayahuasca vine” (Beyer, referencing Torres and Repko, 2006, p. 73); and that “the Piaroa today, beat shoots of the ayahuasca vine into a glue alongside Anadenanthera seeds” (Rodd, 2002).

And also the seeds, an exudate that is emitted from the leaf tips seems to display entheogenic properties (Logan 2001). This exudate pulls in ants which serves to shield the plant from predators. Plants require full daylight and incline toward all around depleted soil. Give the dirt a chance to dry totally between watering. A. colubrina can deal with some transient solidifying conditions.

Calea zacatechichi ? Thle-pelakano shaman ayahuasca plant medicineCalea zacatechichi Thle-pelakano

– ayahuasca shamanism plants

Indigenous names Thle-pelakano (Leaf of God) , zacatechichi (sharp grass), “hoja madre” (mother’s leaf), Zacate de perro, ‘dream herb’.

Scientific categorization Family Compositae

Remarks Calea zacatechichi is an intensely spreading bush with triangular-applaud, coarsely toothed leaves 3/4-2 1/2 inc. (2-6.5 cm) long. The inflorescence is thickly many-bloomed (for the most part around 12). The plant develops from Mexico to Costa Rica in dry savannas and ravines (Schultes and Hoffmann, 1973).

The name of the species originates from Nahuatl “zacatechichi” which signifies “astringent grass” . Calea zacatechichi is critical in local home grown prescription, an imbuement of the plant (roots. leaves and stem) is utilized against gastrointestinal disarranges, as a starter. cholagogue, cathartic. antidysentry cure, and has additionally been accounted for to be a powerful febrifuge. It is likewise used by the Chiapas and Chontal of Mexico as a shamanic plant. They call the herb ‘Tle-pelankano’ (leaf of God) and trust it encourages divinatory messages amid imagining. At the point when the reason for a disease should be recognized, or a far off or lost individual discovered, dry leaves of the plant are smoked, smashed as a tea, and put under the cushion before going to rest.

” zacatechichi organization seems to upgrade the number and additionally memory of dreams amid resting periods. The information are in concurrence with the oneirogenic notoriety of the plant among the Chontal Indians Calea zacatechichi actuates scenes of energetic hypnagogic symbolism amid SWS organize I of rest, a psychophysiological impact that would be the premise of the ethnobotanical utilization of the plant as an oneirogenic and oneiromantic specialist.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18 (1986) 229-243 “Psychopharmacologic Analysis of an Alleged Oneirogenic Plant : Calea Zacatechichi” by Jose-Luis Diaz and Carlos M. Contreras

Petiveria alliacea Mucura

– ayahuasca shamanism plants

shaman plant medicine Petiveria alliacea ? Mucura

Indigenous names Mucura, Chanviro, Mikur-ka’a, Anamu, Tipi

petivaria alliacea

Scientific classification Phytolaccaceae

Remarks Petiveria alliacea is a herbaceous perpetual that is indigenous to the Amazon Rainforest and can be found in different zones in Tropical America and Africa.

It has a long history in vegetalismo hones in home grown showers and as an ayahuasca (yage) admixture. Custom special necklaces containing Mucura and Ajos Sacha are traded between accomplices. It likewise has utilizes as a pain relieving, diuretic, emmenagogue, vermifuge, bug spray, and narcotic. It is a cleansing and defensive plant. It is thought to shield against witchcraft and assaults from people and creatures. Generally is utilized as a natural shower in a sanitizing purifying custom called ‘limpias’. An implantation of 2 grams of dried mucura is absorbed overnight a liter of water to wash off the ‘saladera’, a “salt” or mucus that waits in the inconspicuous body and is thought to cause misfortune.

Mansoa hymenaeamanilkara ? Ajo Sacha - plant medicine shaman ayahuascaMansoa hymenaeamanilkara Ajo Sacha

– ayahuasca shamanism plants

Indigenous names Ajo Sacha, Lavender Garlic Vine, ajo macho, ajos del monte, bo’o-ho, be’o-ja, boens,frukutitei, niaboens, posatalu, pusanga, sacha ajo, shansque, boains.

The Spirit Woman of ‘Ajo Sacha’ by Yolanda Panduro and Don Francisco Montes Shuna.

Scientific classification syn. Mansoa Alliacea, Bignoniaceae

Remarks Literally interpreted as “false” or “fake garlic”, ajo sacha is a vine-like tree whose leaves, when pounded, possess a scent reminiscent of garlic, with an insight of onion. Its leaves, bark, and roots have pain relieving, antipyretic, and antirheumatic properties, and the arrangements produced using its parts can be utilized either orally or topically.

A loved plant educator all through the Amazon bowl, Ajos Sacha generally is utilized as a home grown shower in a purifying custom called ‘limpias’. The curanderos set up the leaves of Ajos Sacha by cutting them painstakingly into small pieces, water is included, and the pith stressed and gathered into a vessel, frequently icaro’s are sung over it, and a little magnet is dropped inside the vessel, to include “quality” to the preperation (Luna 1984). At that point the customer washes themselves with the fluid and flushes the mouth out to scrub them of the saladera (salt), a mucus that has accumilated in the living being, causing misfortune and sick wellbeing (Dobkin de Rios 1981). The vegetalista shrieks the fitting icaro over the patient while “painting” the individual with the fluid (Luna 1984).

Ajo sacha is utilized as an Ayahuasca admixture (Padoch and De Jong 1991, Luna 1984). Ayahuasca and different plants that have cathartic properties remove the mucus from the living being. “Vegetalistas say that Ayahuasca is required for purifying all the flemosidades (mucus developments) that gather in the digestion tracts” (Luna 1984). It is utilized by and large for sensibility and mindfulness, and Ajos Sacha is viewed as an ‘Amansador’, which implies that individuals and creatures won’t hurt the individual who utilizes this plant. (Karsten 1964)

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Salvia Divinorum ska Mara Pastora

– ayahuasca shamanism plants

shaman plant medicine - ayahuasca - Salvia Divinorum ? ska Mara Pastora

Indigenous names ska Maria Pastora, hojas de la Pastora, Yerba Mara, pipiltzintzintli, hoja de adivinacin (leaf of prescience)

Scientific classification Labiatae/Lamiaceae

Remarks Salvia divinorum is local to woodland gorges and other sticky territories of the Sierra Mazateca of Oaxaca, Mexico, between 750 m and 1500 m height. Ethnobotanist R. Gordon Wasson has proposed S.Divinorum is the antiquated Aztec plant pipiltzinzintli. Leaves of Salvia divinorum are utilized for curing and divination by the Mazatec Indians who call the plant “the leaves of the shepherdess” ; this term could allude to a nature god, as the scriptural Mary was not a shepherdess.

Salvia divinorum is generally utilized as quids adding up to 20 to 80 leaves, snacked by the curandero, the patient (or student) or both, contingent upon the circumstance. Following its ingestion the Shepherdess should manage the individual, yet just in supreme calm and murkiness. The plant is additionally utilized as a “pharmaceutical” for ‘panzon de barrego’, a swollen gut caused by divination, and in addition for migraines and ailment.

Mimosa hostilis ? Jurema - shaman plant medicineMimosa hostilis Jurema

– ayahuasca shamanism plants

Indigenous names Vinho da Jurema, Jurema, Jurema Preta, Tepezcohuite, Tepescohuit, Arbre de peau, Ajuc, Caatinga

Scientific classification Syn. Mimosa tenuiflora, Family Leguminosae

Remarks Mimosa Hostilis happens from the tremendous Brasilian caatinga northward to the territory of Oaxaca in southern Mexico (Barneby 1991). In Mexico the stem-bark is an outstanding ethnomedicine. In 1984, in Mexico City, the blast of a gas industrial facility caused the passing of 500 individuals and severely consumed more than 5000. The doctor’s facilities and Red Cross looked for a crisis treatment for the huge number of patients and swung to the antiquated Mayan Tepezcohuite, which demonstrated to a great degree effective.

In 1946, Brasilian microbiologist Oswaldo Gonalves De Lima revealed the shamanic utilization of ajuc or vinho da jurema among the Pancarur Indians of Brejo dos Padres close Tacarat in the valley of the Rio So Francisco in southern Pernambuco. Frosty water extractions of Jurema, with no different added substances, is utilized by various gatherings scattered inadequately finished northeastern Brasil including the Xucur of Serra de Ararob in northern Pernambuco (Hohenthal 1952); Kariri-Shoko of Colegio close to the mouth of the Rio So Francisco which outlines the Alagoas/Sergipe outskirt (Da Mota 1987); the Atikum of the Serra do Um in western Pernambuco (De Azevedo Gronewald 1995); the Truk (Batista 1995).

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List of sources

List of sources Ayahuasca

Andritzky, W., Jan-Mar 1989; Sociopsychotherapeutic elements of ayahuasca recuperating in Amazonia. Diary of Psychoactive Drugs Vol 21 (No. 1) 77-89.

Brent, M. (2001). Ayahuasca, Religion and Nature. Lila : Transpersonal Shamanic Database.

DeKorne, Aardvark, and Trout 2000; Ayahuasca Analogs and Plant-Based Tryptamines. The Entheogen Review .

Dobkin de Rios M. 1972. Ayahuasca and It’s Mechanisms of Healing. From Visionary Vine: Hallucinogenic recuperating in the Peruvian Amazon. San Francisco: Chandler Publishing.

Hoffmann E, Keppel Hesselink and Yatra-W.M. da Silveira Barbosa. (2001) Effects of a Psychedelic, Tropical Tea, Ayahuasca, on the Electroencephalographic (EEG) Activity of the Human Brain During a Shamanistic Ritual. MAPS Volume XI Number 1 Spring 2001.

Luis Eduardo Luna and Steven F. White., 2001. AYAHUASCA READER : Encounters with the Amazon’s Sacred Vine. Synergetic Press ISBN 0 907791 32 8

Luna, L E and Amaringo, P., 1991. Ayahuasca Visions : The Religious Iconography of a Peruvian Shaman. North Atlantic Press

Luna, L E. Vegetalismo : Shamanism among the Mestizon Population of the Peruvian Amazon. Almqvist and Wiksell Internaltional. Stockholm/Sweden.

Luna, L E. 1984. The Concept of Plants as Teachers among four Mestizo Shamans of Iquitos, Northeastern Peru. The Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 11 (1984) 135-156

Metzner, R, Ph.D. (manager)., 2000. Ayahuasca Human Consciousness and the Spirits of Nature. Thunder’s Mouth Press, New York.

McKenna DJ, Callaway JC, Grob CS (1998), The logical examination of ayahuasca: an audit of past and flow investigate. The Heffter Review of Psychedelic Research, Vol 1, pp 65-77.

McKenna DJ, Callaway JC, Grob CS (1996), Human Psychopharmacology of Hoasca, A Plant Hallucinogen Used in Ritual Context in Brazil. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Volume 184(2) February 1996 pp 86-94.

McKenna D, Towers GHN, Abott FS. 1984. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in South American stimulating plants: Tryptamine and beta-carboline constituents of ayahuasca. Diary of Ethnopharmacology 10:195-223.

Naranjo, P. 1986. “El ayahuasca en la arqueologica ecuatoriana”. America Indigena 46(1). Ott, J. (1994). Ayahuasca Analogs: Pangean Entheogens. Regular Products Co., Kennewick, WA.

Savinelli, A, Halpern J H, MD. (1995). MAOI Contraindications. MAPS Volume 6 Number 1 Autumn 1995 p. 58

Schultes RE, Hofmann A (1992) Plants of the divine beings: Their consecrated, mending and psychedelic forces. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.

Schultes RE, Raffauf RF (1992) Vine of the spirit: Medicine men, their plants and customs in the Colombian Amazonia. Prophet, AZ: Syngertic Press.

Shanon, B. Ph.D (1998). Thoughts and Reflections Associated with Ayahuasca Visions. MAPS Volume 8 Number 3 Autumn 1998.

Shanon, B. Ph.D 1999. “Ayahuasca dreams: A relative psychological examination,” Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness 8 (in press). Altered by C. Rtsch and J. Bread cook. Berlin: VWB Verlag.

Topping, D,M. Ph.D. Teacher Emeritus, University of Hawai’i. (1998). Ayahuasca and Cancer: One Man’s Experience. MAPS Volume 8 Number 3 Autumn 1998 pp. 22-26

Topping, D,M. Ph.D. Teacher Emeritus, University of Hawai’i. (1999). Ayahuasca and Cancer: A Postscript. MAPS Volume 9 Number 2 Summer 1999 pp. 22-25

Book index Cyperus Piripiri

Schultes R.E and R.F Raffauf, 1990. “The Healing Forest : Medicinal and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia”. Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR.

Ott J., 1996, Pharmacotheon. Entheogenic drugs, their plant sources and history, 2 ed., Kennewick, CA, Natural Products.

Cultivator T.C., A. Leuchtmann, C. Blanet and K. Mud, 1990, Significance of the Fungus Balansia cyperi Infecting Medicinal Species of Cyperus from Amazonia, Econ.Bot., 44:452-462.

Bigwood J., J. Ott, C. Thompson and P. Nelly, 1979, Entheogenic Effects of Ergonovine, J.Psyched.Drugs, 11:147-149.

Russo, Ethan B. M.D. Division of Neurosciences. 1996. “Timetable 1 Research Protocol: An Investigation of Psychedelic Plants and Compounds for Activity in Serotonin Receptor Assays for Headache Treatment and Prophylaxis”. From MAPS Volume 7 Number 1 Winter 1996-97 pp. 4-9.

McKenna, D.J. et al. 1986. “Ingredientes biodinamicos en las plantas que se mezclan al ayahuasca. Una farmacopea tradicional no investigada” America Indigena 46(1):73-99.

List of sources – Nicotiana tabacum Mapacho

“Mapacho” Amazon Spiritquest Public Information Service

Ott ,Jonathon, “Pharmacotheon” bar. by: Natural Products co.

Schultes, R.E. what’s more, R.F. Raffauf. 1995. “The Healing Forest: restorative and harmful plants of the northwest Amazonia”, Dioscorides Press, Portland, Or.. ISBN 0-931146-14-3

Wilbert, J. 1987. “Tobacco and Shamanism in South America”, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.

Wilbert, J. 1991. “Does pharmacology validate the nicotine treatment and practices of South American shamanism” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 32 (1-3):179-186

A.L. Jussieu. “Mapacho Analysis, planning, and utilization of Nicotiana tobaccum”. Recorded, Ethno and Economic Botany Series Volume 2

Reference index Brugmansia suaveolens To

Schultes RE, Raffauf RF 1992. “Vine of the spirit: Medicine men, their plants and ceremonies in the Colombian Amazonia”. Prophet, AZ: Synergetic Press.

Schultes, R.E., and Raffauf, 1990. “The Healing Forest. Therapeutic and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia”, R.F. Dioscorides Press, 1990.

Rudgley, R, 2000. “The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances”. Griffin Trade Paperback; ISBN: 0312263171

Ott ,Jonathan, 1996. “Pharmacotheon” bar. by: Natural Products co.

De Smet, P.A.G.M. 1983. “A Multidisciplinary diagram of inebriating douche customs in the western half of the globe”. Diary Of Ethnopharmacology 9(2,3):129-166.

Book index Brunfelsia grandiflora Manac, Chiric sanango

Schultes, R.E., and Raffauf, 1990. “The Healing Forest. Therapeutic and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia”, R.F. Dioscorides Press, 1990.

Leslie Taylor, Personal field notes with Curandero Jose Guerra Cabrerra close to the town of Tam Hisaco. September, 1997, with Curandera Consuela Garcia of the Ecuadorian Ashur tribe, April, 1997, and with Curandero Don Antonio Montero at ACEER, Peru. August 1996

Rios, Marlene Dbkin de, 1992, “Amazon Healer, The Life and Times of a Urban Shaman”. Avery Publishing Group, Carden City Park, NY

“Intense and Unusual Herbs from the Amazon and China”, 1993. The World Preservation Society, Inc.

Ott ,Jonathan, “Pharmacotheon” bar. by: Natural Products co.

Cultivator, T.C, 1977. “Brunfelsia in ethnomedicine” Botanical Museum Leaflets Harvard University 25(10):289-320

Plowman,T.C, 1980. “The variety Brunfelsia : A summation of the scientific categorization and biogeography” In : Hawkes, J.G. et all. (Eds.) The Botany and Taxonomy of the Solancaceae. (Linnean Soc. SYmposium Ser. No. 7) Linean Soc., London, England. pp.475-491

Kohn, E.O. 1992. “A few Observations on the utilization of restorative plants from essential and auxiliary development by the Runa of eastern marsh Ecuador” Journal of Ethnobiology 12(1): 141-152

ayahuasca shamanism plants

Biblography Tynnanthus panurensis Clavohuasca

Schultes, R.E., and Raffauf, 1990. “The Healing Forest. Restorative and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia”, R.F. Dioscorides Press, 1990.

Dennis J. Mckenna, L. E. Luna, And G. N. Towers, 1995. “Biodynamic Constituents in Ayahuasca Admixture Plants: A Uninvestigated Folk Pharmacopeia” From Ethnobotany Evolution of a Discipline. ISBN 0-931146-28-3. Copyright 1995 Dioscorides Press.

Duke, James and Vasquez, Rudolfo, 1994. “Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary”, CRC Press Inc.

James Duke, 1997. “The Green Pharmacy”, Rodale Press

Cruz, G.L. 1995. “Dicionario Das Plantas Uteis Do Brasil”, fifth ed., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Bertrand 1995.

Ott ,Jonathan, “Pharmacotheon” bar. by: Natural Products co.

Luna, L,E. 1986. “Vegetalismo : Shamanism among the Mestizo Population of the Peruvian Amazon. Almqvist and Wiksell International, Stockholm, Sweden.

Rivier, L and J.E. Lindgren. 1972. “Ayahuasca, the South American psychedelic drink : An Ethnobotanical and compound examination”. Monetary Botany 26(1):101-129.

Pinkley, H.V. 1969. “Plant admixtures to Ayahuasca, the South American psychedelic drink”. Lloydia 32(3):305-314.

Biblography Calea Zacatechichi

Lilian Mayagoitia. Jose-luis Diaz And Carlos M. Contreras. “Psychopharmacologic Analysis Of An Alleged Oneirogenic Plant: Calea Zacatechichi” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18 (1986) 229-243 Eleavier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.

Jose Luis Diaz, MD. “Ethnopharmacology and Taxonomy of Mexican Psychodysleptic Plants”. 1979

ayahuasca shamanism plants

Book index Ajo Sacha

Karsten, R. 1964. “Concentrates in the Religion of the South-American Indians East of the Andes.” Helsinki : Societas Scientiarum Fennica. Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum XXIX.1.

Padoch, C. what’s more, W. De Jong. 1991. “The house patio nurseries of Santa Rosa : Diversity and fluctuation in an Amazonian farming framework”. Financial Botany 45(2):166-175.

Rios, Marlene Dobkin de, 1984, “Stimulants : Cross-Cultural Perspectives.” University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Ott ,Jonathan, “Pharmacotheon” bar. by: Natural Products co.

Luna, L E. Vegetalismo : Shamanism among the Mestizon Population of the Peruvian Amazon. Almqvist and Wiksell Internaltional. Stockholm/Sweden.

Reference index Anadenanthera

ayahuasca shamanism plants

Altschul, S. von R. (1964) A Taxonomic Study of the Genus Anadenanthera. Contrib. Dark Herb.193. 3-65

Califano, M. (1976) El Chamanismo Mataco. Scripta Ethnologicano. 3, pt. 2-7-60

Furst, P. T. (1974) Hallucinogens in Precolumbian Art. In: King, E.M. furthermore, Traylor (Ed.) Art and Environment in Native America. Texas Technical University, Special Publications of the Museum, no. 7, pp. 55-102

Logan, N., (2000) Anadenanthera. Ethnobotany Special Event at Fort Lewis College

Ott ,Jonathon, Pharmacotheon bar. by: Natural Products co.

Pochettino M L. Cortella A R. Ruiz M. (1999) Hallucinogenic Snuff from Northwestern Argentina: Microscopial Identification of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae) in Powdered Archeaological Material. Monetary Botany 53(2)

Schultes, R. E., Vilca and its Use. (1967) In: Efron,D.H. (Ed.) Ethnopharmacologic Search for Psychoactive Drugs. Washington, D.C., US.Public Health Service Publ. no. 1645, pp. 307-314

ayahuasca shamanism plants

Schultes, R. E., (1972) The Genus Anadenanthera in Amerindian Cultures. Cambridge, Mass., Botanical Museum, Harvard University.

Torres, C Manuel.(1996) Evidence for Antiquity of Entheogens in the Central Andes. Entheobotany: Shamanic Plant Science A Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Plants, Shamanism and Ecstatic States. 18-20 October, 1996 Palace of Fine Arts Theater in San Francisco, CA.

Torres, C Manuel. (1992) Cohoba/DMT Snuffs. Plant Preservation Corps Field Seminars, Audio recorded address.

Torres, C Manuel. (1999) The Use of Psychoactive Snuff Powders in Pre-Columbian San Pedro de Atacama, Chile. From ‘Dreams That The Plants Gave Us. Richard F Brush Art Gallery.

Torres, C. M., Repke, D. B., Chan, K., McKenna, D., Llagostera, An., and Schultes, R. E. (1991). Snuff powders from pre-Hispanic San Pedro de Atacama: Chemical and logical examination. Current Anthropology, 32(5) 640-649.

ayahuasca shamanism plants

Biblography Salvia Divinorum

Valdes L.J., et al. 1983. “Ethnopharmacology of Ska Maria Pastora (Salvia divinorum, Epling and Jativa-M.)” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 7(3):287-312

Ott J., 1996, Pharmacotheon. Entheogenic drugs, their plant sources and history, 2 ed., Kennewick, CA, Natural Products.

Wasson, R.G. 1962. “A New Mexican psychotropic medication from the mint family” Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University 20(3): 77-84.

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Showing 6 comments
  • Jan Reves

    Fantastic resource for shaman plants. I love the in-depth look specifically at ayahuasca. I have had several encounters with ayahuasca and DMT, and I must say that they have changed my life forever and for the better! Thank you so much for sharing!

  • Bill

    Besides being one of the longest articles ever, this was really helpful. I think I will have to bookmark this as one of the top shaman ayahuasca resources.

  • ted

    Ayahuasca saved my life. No shit – for real. I was depressed and on the verge of suicide when a friend of mine turned me onto an ayahuasca retreat. Although it was an intense ordeal, I was completely changed. Not a big fan of the purge, but the experience was amazing and filled me with a love I don’t know if I’ve ever felt before. I recommend anyone that is in a real bad way to research and consider the healing power of the “ancient shaman brew.”

  • TJ

    Frankly, I don’t know if ayhausca is right for me. That is why I’m here. This is really helpful but I’m still undecided. I know I need some help but i dont know if this is the way.

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